Viscum.dk
Book on parasitic plants of the world
Opdated
March 2014


CONTENTS:




About Viscum
(Mistletoes)


Curriculum vitae (C.V.)


Green fingers

Plant lifeforms

Publications


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS:




About Viscum
(Mistletoes)


Curriculum vitae (C.V.)


Green fingers

Plant lifeforms

Publications


Publikations dato: 2. juni 2008

 

From the Preface by Dr. Job Kuijt:

The present book, therefore, fills a great need, and does so with style, and on a worldwide basis. It provides a harmonious account of fascinating information on a general ecological and evolutionary backdrop, and is profusely illustrated with excellent photographs. Dr. Heide-Jørgensen has done an outstanding job in providing a balanced presentation that will be a gem on anyone's bookshelf, whether a professional or an interested naturalist. At long last, the parasitic plants of the world have received the treatment they so richly deserve.

Job Kuijt
University of Victoria, B.C.

-- Cover: Castilleja coccinea. - Photo: Carol Gracie

-



-
--
Amyema scandens (Loranthaceae) from New Caledonia
-flowering from epicortical roots.
- Foto: Bernard Suprin
.
Review by Prof. Dr. Harro J. Bouwmeester, Wageningen:

This beautifully illustrated encyclopedia of parasitic plants gives a fantastic overview of the morphological variety of parasitic plants, and describes and illustrates the adaptations that enable plants to be para-sitic. The illustrations are magnificent and can only make you admire how nature has created such wonderful creatures almost as if it wants to mask their mal-intentions. In addition to the wonderful illustrations, the book reviews important aspects of plant parasitism such as the physiological mechanisms, the ecology and the putative evolution of parasitism in plants. Hence, the book is a rich source of facts and need-to-knows about parasitic plants and therefore will be a valuable handbook for scientists and a fine introduction to para-sitism in plants for non-scientists.


Facts about the book:

Hardcover with XIV + 438 pages and about 50% illu-strations based on 1005 files. About 90% are in colour.
21 distribution maps besides other graphics.
9 explanatory boxes.
Glossary.
Selected literature.
List of photographers (128 persons have contributed).
Index with about 5000 page references.

Corrigenda.----Book reviews ---Award nomination

1st print published by Brill, The Netherlands with financial support from Aage V. Jensens Funds and the Danish Minestry of Science, Technology, and Innovation. 2nd print with corrections published without funding. List price: EUR 129 / US $ 177.

How to order: see this link to Brill.





Viscum album (European mistletoe), male flowers
with open pollen sacs. - Foto: H S Heide-Jørgensen























Agelanthus flammeus (Loranthaceae) with
directional explosive flowers pollinated by sunbirds. - Foto: Darrel C. H. Plowes.



The book is written in mostly non-technical English but where technical terms are used they are explained in the text, in the Glossary, or in boxes. Hence, the book can be read without special botanical back-ground knowledge. It has been necessary to use Latin plant names since popular names with few exceptions have only local value.

The list of Contents follows below. Click on the photographs/graphics to see enlarge-ments and accompanying text.





Who knows the photographer/copyright holder?

Mistletoe bird, Dicaeum arundinaceum, feeding its young with fruits, presumably of Amyema sp.?

The photographer should be Philip Green. If you know how to contact him, please, send the author a note.

See aleso the paper 'Danish and Nordic parasitic plants' as pdf.
The author may be reached by this
E-mail

-----------------------------------------------------------Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --Sorry, displacement of the photographs below may occur in some browsers
Preface by Job Kuijt................................................................................................................
Author's preface......................................................................................................................
Chapter 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................
What is a parasitic plant? .........................................................................................................
Parasite 'lookalikes'..................................................................................................................
---Box 1. Myco-heterotrophic plants ————————————————————————
Types of parasites and some definitions ....................................................................................
---Box 2. Different structures called a haustorium ......................................................................
The haustorium ————————————————————————————————
---Box 3. Vascular tissue in higher plants ..................................................................................
A parasitic gymnosperm ..........................................................................................................
How many plants are parasitic? ................................................................................................
History of research in parasites ................................................................................................
Chapter 2. Hemiparasitic Santalales .....................................................................................
Olacaceae ..............................................................................................................................
Schoepfiaceae ........................................................................................................................
---Box 4. Life cycle and embryology of flowering plants ............................................................
Opiliaceae ..............................................................................................................................
Loranthaceae .........................................................................................................................
---Vegetative morphology —————————————————————————————
---Haustorium anatomy ...........................................................................................................
---Floral structure and pollination .............................................................................................
---Bird pollination ...................................................................................................................
---Embryology ........................................................................................................................
---Dispersal biology .................................................................................................................
---The root parasites ...............................................................................................................
---Loranthaceae in the New World ...........................................................................................
---Loranthaceae in Africa —————————————————————————————
---Loranthaceae in Eurasia .......................................................................................................
---Loranthaceae in Australia .....................................................................................................
---Loranthaceae in selected isolated islands ...............................................................................
------Box 5. Endemism ............................................................................................................
Misodendraceae .....................................................................................................................
Eremolepidaceae ....................................................................................................................
Santalaceae ——————————————————————————————————
---Vegetative morphology ........................................................................................................
---Floral biology ......................................................................................................................
---Herbaceous genera ..............................................................................................................
---Woody genera ....................................................................................................................
Viscaceae................................................................................................................................
---Dendrophthora ...................................................................................................................
---Phoradendron .....................................................................................................................
---Korthalsella ........................................................................................................................
---Notothixos ..........................................................................................................................
---Viscum...............................................................................................................................
---Arceuthobium ————————————————————————————————
Summary................................................................................................................................
Chapter 3. Hemiparasitic families other than Santalales .......................................................
Krameriaceae .........................................................................................................................
Cassytha (Lauraceae) ..............................................................................................................
Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) ————————————————————————————
Hemiparasitic Orobanchaceae ..................................................................................................
---Habit and haustoria .............................................................................................................
---Flower biology ....................................................................................................................
---Widely distributed genera .....................................................................................................
---Northern temperate zone .....................................................................................................
---Old World warm climates ....................................................................................................
Chapter 4. Holoparasitic families .........................................................................................
Holoparasitic Orobanchaceae ...................................................................................................
---Genera transferred from Scrophulariaceae .............................................................................
---Orobanchaceae (sensu stricto) ——————————————————————————
Cynomoriaceae ...............………….........................................................................................
Lennoaceae ............................................................................................................................
Mitrastemonaceae ...................................................................................................................
Apodanthaceae ..............….....................................................................................................
Cytinaceae ...............………...………………………................................................................
Rafflesiaceae ..........................................................................................................................
---Rafflesia —————————.................................…………..........................................
---Sapria ..............…...............................................................................................................
---Rhizanthes .........................................................................................................................
Hydnoraceae ..........................................................................................................................
---Hydnora .............................................................................................................................
---Prosopanche .......................................................................................................................
Balanophoraceae ....................................................................................................................
---Vegetative morphology and anatomy ....................................................................................
---Inflorescences and flowers ...................................................................................................
---The most widely distributed genera .......................................................................................
---American genera ———————————————————————————————
---African genera ....................................................................................................................
---Southeast Asian-Pacific genera .............................................................................................
Chapter 5. Establishment of the parasite ..............................................................................
Seed dispersal strategies ..........................................................................................................
Germination and host recognition .............................................................................................
Haustorial development ...........................................................................................................
---Haustorial initiation .............................................................................................................
---Development of the holdfast ................................................................................................
------Box. 6. The plant cuticle ..................................................................................................
---Development of the endophyte .............................................................................................
---Differentiation of the xylem bridge ————————————————————————
The mature haustorium ...........................................................................................................
---Interrupted zone .................................................................................................................
---Graniferous tracheary elements ............................................................................................
---The interface ————————————————————————————————
---Phoradendron case story .....................................................................................................
Physiology .............................................................................................................................
---Water relations (Transpiration) .............................................................................................
------Box 7. Absorption and transport of nutrient ions ................................................................
---Nutrient absorption and translocation ....................................................................................
---Translocation from parasite to host .......................................................................................
------Box 8. Photosynthesis .....................................................................................................
---Photosynthesis ....................................................................................................................
---Further physiological topics ..................................................................................................
Chapter 6. Host ranges and various ecological aspects of parasitism ....................................
Facultative and obligate parasites ..............................................................................................
Host specificity .......................................................................................................................
---Determining the host range ..................................................................................................
---Species delimitation and host range .......................................................................................
---Host specificity in various taxa . —————————————————————————
Epi- and self parasitism ...........................................................................................................
Mimicry..................................................................................................................................
Host reactions and defence ......................................................................................................
Biochemical defence ...............................................................................................................
Hypertrophy and hormonal disorder .........................................................................................
Mechanical defence ................................................................................................................
Relations to non-host organisms ...............................................................................................
Flowers and fruits as food sources ...........................................................................................
Herbivory -——————————————————————————————————
Diseases ................................................................................................................................
Vegetation ecology ..................................................................................................................
---Arid vegetation - xerophytism ...............................................................................................
------Box 7. Xerophytism ........................................................................................................
---Coastal vegetation - salt tolerance .........................................................................................
---Temperate and tropical forests .............................................................................................
---Arctic vegetation ———————————————————————————————
---Cultivated and urban land ....................................................................................................
Ecosystems - fires ..................................................................................................................
Chapter 7. Harmful parasites and control methods ..............................................................
Parasitic plants in agriculture ....................................................................................................
---Cuscuta and Cassytha on crops ............................................................................................
---Striga on crops ————————————————————————————————
---Orobanche and Phelipanche on crops ...................................................................................
---Other root parasites on crops ...............................................................................................
---Control methods .................................................................................................................
Parasites in forestry and orchards .............................................................................................
---Arceuthobium .....................................................................................................................
---Other stem parasites ............................................................................................................
---Control methods .................................................................................................................
Chapter 8. Ecology and evolution .........................................................................................
Evolution of parasitism in dicots ...............................................................................................
---Evolution of different modes of parasitism ............................................................................
---Convergent evolution ..........................................................................................................
---
Co-evolution and bird pollination —————————————————————————
Phylogeny...............................................................................................................................
---Transfer of genetic information ............................................................................................
---The phylogenetic tree ..........................................................................................................
Nature conservation ———————————————————————————————
Glossary ...............................................................................................................................
Selected literature .................................................................................................................
List of photographers ...........................................................................................................
Index ....................................................................................................................................
X
XI
1
1
2
4
6
8
8
9
16
20
23
25
25
29
30
32
33
35
37
42
44
49
50
54
58
66
74
78
81
82
90
94
95
97
99
100
102
113
117
117
123
127
127
136
143
145
145
148
153
161
162
167
169
174
183
189
189
191
198
207
210
213
215
220
223
227
231
232
235
237
239
240
240
243
245
248
255
259
263
263
267
269
270
271
273
276
284
285
287
287
289
291
295
295
296
297
300
301
302
305
307
307
307
308
312
315
326
329
331
331
333
335
335
336
336
341
343
345
346
348
350
351
352
353
357
358
360
361
365
367
369
376
376
379
382
385
386
386
398
401
403
404
405
406
414
417
421
425



Myco-heterotrof Monotropa uniflora

Haustorium diagram

Secondary haustoria, epicortical root

Erianthemum ngamicum

Cuscuta distribution map


Male Arceuthobium douglasii

Cuscuta flower structure

Conopholis americana

Corynaea crassa

Transversal section of xylem bridge

Yellow line: interface in Cuscuta

Orobanche elatior on Centaurea scabiosa

Delias aganippe on Santalum acuminatum

Pedicularis lanata, Arctic species

Striga hermonthica on mays

Tristerix peruvianus

Cynomorium locality, Algarve